There are various mechanical parts which are involved i […]
There are various mechanical parts which are involved in the power transmission such as pulleys, shaft couplings, speed reducers, sprockets, universal joints, and gearboxes, etc. In addition to them, belt is also an important kind that used for power transmission. It is the cheapest utility for power transmission between shafts that may not be parallel.
A belt is a looped strip of flexible material, used to mechanically link two or more rotating shafts. They may be used as a source of motion, to efficiently transmit power, or to track relative movement. Belts are looped over pulleys. In a two pulley system, the belt can either drive the pulleys in the same direction, or the belt may be crossed, so that the direction of the shafts is opposite.
The power transmission in belt drive is caused by friction between belt and pulleys. However, some relative movement will always exist at driver-belt interface and belt-driven pulley interface due to ineffective friction. This phenomenon is called as slip the belt. Due to slip, its speed will be less than the peripheral speed of the driving wheel and slightly more than peripheral speed of the driven wheel.
Fatigue is the reason for most belt problems. This wear is caused by stress from rolling around the pulleys. High belt tension, excessive slippage, adverse environmental conditions, and overloads caused by shock, vibration, or belt slapping all contribute to fatigue. In clockwise rotation of the driver, the driver pulls belt from lower side and delivers it to the upper side. Thus the tension in the lower side belt will be more than that of the upper side belt. Hence the lower side is called as tight side and upper side is called as slack side.
There are many criteria for the selection of belt drives. They are built under the following required conditions: speeds of and power transmitted between drive and driven unit, suitable distance between shafts, and appropriate operating conditions.
The open V Belt drive has parallel shafts rotating in the same direction, whereas the cross-belt drive also bears parallel shafts but rotate in opposite direction. The former is far more common, and the latter not appropriate for timing and standard V-belts, because the pulleys contact both inner and outer belt surfaces. Non-parallel shafts can be connected if the belt's center line is aligned with the center plane of the pulley. Industrial belts are usually reinforced rubber but sometimes leather types, non-leather non-reinforced belts, can only be used in light applications.